The behavior of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars under compression is not fully understood yet due to the limited research in this area. However, the long-term durability, weathering resistance, and exceptional mechanical properties of FRP bars justify the need for their use in compression members. The main objectives of this study are to evaluate the mechanical properties of glass FRP (GFRP) and basalt FRP (BFRP) bars under compression and examine their performances as main longitudinal reinforcements in reinforced concrete (RC) columns. In the first part of this research, a series of static compression tests were conducted on GFRP and BFRP bars of different diameters. The second part of this research numerically investigated the behavior of FRP-RC columns under concentric and eccentric loading using the mechanical properties of the FRP bars obtained experimentally. Nonlinear finite element models were developed to simulate the compressive behavior of the concrete columns reinforced with GFRP and BFRP bars. The FE models were verified with the experimental results conducted previously. The verified FE models are then utilized to conduct a parametric analysis considering two different column geometries and cross-sections, five reinforcement ratios, two concrete compressive strengths, three types of ties materials, and several loading eccentricities to develop a set of interaction diagrams that may provide valuable data for design purposes. The results indicated that the FRP bars could have a significant contribution to the overall capacity of FRP-RC columns by up to 35% of the total force at failure, depending on the reinforcement ratio. The performance of both the GFRP- and BFRP-RC columns was almost similar in terms of capacity, deflection, and bar strength contribution.