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Optimal operation of battery exchange stations for electric vehicles
Due to environmental and energy security concerns, low emission vehicles present a vital necessity for clean transportation. In particular, electric vehicles (EVs) are the most promising solution due to the fact that the ...
Optimal Operation of Virtual Charging Systems for Plug-In Electric Vehicles
This paper proposes a novel concept, denoted as Virtual Charging System (VCS), for electric vehicles’ (EVs). In a conventional charging system (CCS) with a competitive environment, the competition between charging stations ...