A Master of Science thesis in Civil Engineering by Haifa Sharif entitled, "Formation of Bromate in Pet Bottle Water," submitted in January 2014. Thesis advisors are Dr. Maruf Mortula and Dr. Serter Atabay. Available are both soft and hard copies of the thesis.
High bromate levels in bottle water is a concern in UAE. In this study, bromate formation in bottles of drinking water was studied while exposed to various temperatures, storage times and pH levels. Three brands, referred to as X, Y and Z, were selected to reflect the local, regional and international water bottles supplied in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). From each brand, 36 Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles of water were collected. Moreover, four different temperatures were selected based on the weather conditions in the UAE. These temperatures are 20°C, 30°C, 40°C, and 50°C. The water bottles used in the study were stored in incubators at 3 storage times which were 1 day, 14 days and 42 days. They were also introduced to three pH levels which are 6.5, 7.5 and 8.5. Bromate, turbidity, TDS and total bacterial count (TBC) levels were tested for all the samples of bottles. Besides, additional parameters, bromide and total organic carbon (TOC), were tested for 12 samples at 42 days. The results of the study showed that bromate was found in all tested brands at 1 day storage time. It was also found in brands X and Y at 14 days and 42 days storage time. On the other hand, brand Z had no traces of bromate at 14 days and 42 days storage time. Increasing the storage time in general tended to reduce bromate levels in water. Regardless of the storage time and the pH level of the water, the effect of temperature was negligible for all tested brands. Furthermore, compared to the temperature and storage time, the pH effect on bromate formation was much more noticeable. Increasing pH level caused an increase in bromate formation in brands X and Y. However, Brand Z observed a decrease in bromate formation with pH level increase. Brands X and Z had no correlation between bromate and bromide. Brand Y; nevertheless, observed a decrease in bromate formation with an increase in bromide concentration. Other water quality parameters including TDS, TOC, turbidity and TBC effect on bromate formation was not significant. Regardless of the conditions water bottles were exposed to, all bromate levels were found to be below the maximum contamination level, 10μgL, set by several organizations.