Burning Arabian incense (Bakhour) is a common indoor practice in the Middle East and the Arabian Gulf region. However, the chemical composition of this substance has never been studied. Three different Bakhour brands were selected for this study. A complete chemical profile for the raw samples was determined using carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen elemental analysis, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and gas chromatography mass spectrometry techniques. A wide range of elements and compounds were identified, many of which are hazardous to health. Nitrogen was found in all samples which should raise concerns due to the known health implications of amines, nitrogen oxides and nitrites. In addition toxic metals such as cobalt, copper, iron, nickel, lead, and zinc were also determined in all samples. The amounts of these metals are equivalent to those in raw tobacco, where they are known to pose health risks. Three types of solvents (acetone, dichloromethane and toluene) were used for the extraction of organic compounds. Carcinogens, toxins and irritants were found along others of different health implications. Isolation of these compounds provides preliminary evidence on the harmful consequences of being exposed to Bakhour.