A Master of Arts thesis in Translation and Interpreting MATI (English/Arabic/English) by Sumayya M. Al Teneiji entitled, "Culture in Relay Audio-Visual Translation: A Case of Inevitable Culture Divergence," submitted in December 2015. Thesis advisor is Dr. Said Faiq. Soft and hard copy available.
Given the basic convention that translation is a process of intercultural interaction, it is supposed that relay translation, which is a form of translation, also functions so, but its role in the transfer of culture should be reassessed. Japanese anime has been so popular recently. It is usually dubbed or subtitled into Arabic thorough relay translation mainly from English or French. Taking Spirited Away, one of the most successful Japanese anime films in the history of Japan's cinema and an Academy-Award winner, as its case study, this thesis analyzes the translation of Culture-Specific Items (CSIs) in the film and examines the culture divergence caused by relay translation in Audiovisual Translation (AVT) from Japanese into Arabic via English. It is concluded that culture divergence is almost inventible in relay translation. The cultural loss is more significant than in direct translation. The end product of relay translation is a translation of the medium translation(s) rather than of the original text, and the culture divergence that occurs in the medium translation(s) is further maintained or increased in the relay target text.